The following information is provided in chronological order so that the reader may follow the sequence of events of the Revolutionary War battles as they developed in The Southern Campaign. Except for the discussion on Kettle Creek and Ramsour’s Mill, all other material is used with permission from the author, A. Mims Wilkinson, Jr., member of the Atlanta Chapter, Georgia Society Sons of the American Revolution.
THE END OF WAR IN THE NORTH
On October 7, 1777, in the Hudson River Country of Upper New York State, an American Army under the Command of General Horatio Gates defeated the British Army of General John Burgoyne in the Second Battle of Freeman's Farm also called "Saratoga." Thereafter, while American Regular Continental Army troops and militiamen continued to arrive, the British withdrew to another position nearby and on October 17, 1777, the British Army of approximately 5,500 men found itself surrounded by an American force of 15,200, mostly fresh and well supplied with food and ammunition.
The army of "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne with all its stores, arms and equipment, surrendered and General Gates was given credit for the victory.
But he provided little leadership and the heroes of the battle were General Benjamin Lincoln, Colonel Daniel Morgan and General Benedict Arnold. In those days, armies in the North did not fight in winter, and in December 1777, General Washington ordered the Army into winter quarters at Valley Forge, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The hardships at Valley Forge are well known, but one of the principal compensating factors was the drill instruction and organizational skill of the German patriot, Baron Von Stueben, who occupied the soldiers' time in military exercises, close order drill formations and musket and bayonet drill. He brought about by military discipline a change in the troops from raw, unskilled, incompetent farmers to dependable, steadfast, self-confident soldiers, a match for the professionals of Britain and their Hessian mercenaries.
After Valley Forge, the last major battle of the war in the North was fought at Monmouth, New Jersey, with indecisive results, and both sides entitled to claim victory. The American Commanders were LaFayette, Nathaniel Greene, Anthony Wayne and Stirling, facing the British troops under Lord Charles Cornwallis, who subsequently was ordered South by the British Commander in Chief, Sir Henry Clinton, and again faced Nathaniel Greene in the Southern Campaign.
So, on June 28, 1778, the war ended in the North.